pyklip package¶
Subpackages¶
 pyklip.fmlib package
 pyklip.instruments package
 Subpackages
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support package
 Submodules
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640_cube_checker module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640_cube_checker_interactive module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640_spot_checker module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640contrast module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640cores module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640spots module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support.P1640utils module
 Module contents
 pyklip.instruments.utils package
 pyklip.instruments.P1640_support package
 Submodules
 pyklip.instruments.CHARIS module
 pyklip.instruments.GPI module
 pyklip.instruments.Instrument module
 pyklip.instruments.MagAO module
 pyklip.instruments.NIRC2 module
 pyklip.instruments.P1640 module
 pyklip.instruments.SPHERE module
 pyklip.instruments.osiris module
 Module contents
 Subpackages
 pyklip.kpp package
Submodules¶
pyklip.covars module¶

pyklip.covars.
delta
(x, y, sigmas, *args)[source]¶ Generates a diagonal covariance matrix
C_ij = sigma_i sigma_j delta_{ij}
Parameters:  x (np.array) – 1D array of x coordinates
 y (np.array) – 1D array of y coordinates
 sigmas (np.array) – 1D array of errors on each pixel

pyklip.covars.
matern32
(x, y, sigmas, corr_len)[source]¶ Generates a Matern (nu=3/2) covariance matrix that assumes x/y has the same correlation length
C_ij = sigma_i sigma_j (1 + sqrt(3) r_ij / l) exp(sqrt(3) r_ij / l)
Parameters:  x (np.array) – 1D array of x coordinates
 y (np.array) – 1D array of y coordinates
 sigmas (np.array) – 1D array of errors on each pixel
 corr_len (float) – correlation length of the Matern function
Returns: 2D covariance matrix parameterized by the Matern function
Return type: cov (np.array)

pyklip.covars.
sq_exp
(x, y, sigmas, corr_len)[source]¶ Generates square exponential covariance matrix that assumes x/y has the same correlation length
C_ij = sigma_i sigma_j exp(r_ij^2/[2 l^2])
Parameters:  x (np.array) – 1D array of x coordinates
 y (np.array) – 1D array of y coordinates
 sigmas (np.array) – 1D array of errors on each pixel
 corr_len (float) – correlation length (i.e. standard deviation of Gaussian)
 mode (string) – either “numpy”, “cython”, or None, specifying the implementation of the kernel.
Returns: 2D covariance matrix parameterized by the Matern function
Return type: cov (np.array)
pyklip.empca module¶

pyklip.empca.
np_calc_chisq
(data, b, w, coef)[source]¶ Calculate chi squared
Parameters:  im – nim x npix, singleprecision numpy.ndarray. Data to be fit by the basis images
 b – nvec x npts, double precision numpy.ndarray. The nvec basis images.
 w – nim x npts, singleprecision numpy.ndarray. Weights (inverse variances) of the data.
 coef – nvec x npts, double precision numpy.ndarray. The coefficients of the basis image fits.
Returns: chisq, the total chi squared summed over all points and all images

pyklip.empca.
set_pixel_weights
(imflat, rflat, ivar=None, mode='standard', inner_sup=17, outer_sup=66)[source]¶ Parameters:  imflat – array of flattend images, shape (N, number of section indices)
 rflat – radial component of the polar coordinates flattened to 1D, length = number of section indices
 mode –
 ‘standard’: assume poission statistics to calculate variance as sqrt(photon count)
 use inverse sqrt(variance) as pixel weights and multiply by a radial weighting
 inner_sup – radius within which to supress weights
 outer_sup – radius beyond which to supress weights
Returns: pixel weights for empca

pyklip.empca.
weighted_empca
(data, weights=None, niter=25, nvec=5, randseed=1, maxcpus=1, silent=True)[source]¶ Perform iterative lowrank matrix approximation of data using weights.
Generated model vectors are not orthonormal and are not rotated/ranked by ability to model the data, but as a set they are good at describing the data.
Parameters:  data – images to model
 weights – weights for every pixel
 niter – maximum number of iterations to perform
 nvec – number of vectors to solve (rank of the approximation)
 randseed – rand num generator seed; if None, don’t reinitialize
 maxcpus – maximum cpus to use for parallel programming
 silent – bool, whether to show chi_squared for each iteration
Returns: returns the best lowrank approximation to the data in a weighted leastsquares sense (dot product of coefficients and basis vectors).
pyklip.fakes module¶

pyklip.fakes.
LSQ_gauss2d
(planet_image, x_grid, y_grid, a, x_cen, y_cen, sig)[source]¶ Calculate the squared norm of the residuals of the model with the data. Helper function for least square fit. The model is a 2d symmetric gaussian.
Parameters:  planet_image – stamp image (y,x) of the satellite spot.
 x_grid – x samples grid as given by meshgrid.
 y_grid – y samples grid as given by meshgrid.
 a – amplitude of the 2d gaussian
 x_cen – x center of the gaussian
 y_cen – y center of the gaussian
 sig – standard deviation of the gaussian
Returns: Squared norm of the residuals

pyklip.fakes.
PSFcubefit
(frame, xguess, yguess, searchrad=10, psfs_func_list=None, wave_index=None, residuals=False, rmbackground=True, add_background2residual=False)[source]¶ Estimate satellite spot amplitude (peak value) by fitting a symmetric 2d gaussian. Fit parameters: x,y position, amplitude, standard deviation (same in x and y direction)
Parameters:  frame – the data  Array of size (y,x)
 xguess – x location to fit the 2d guassian to.
 yguess – y location to fit the 2d guassian to.
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 psfs_func_list – List of spline fit function for the PSF_cube.
 wave_index – Index of the current wavelength. In [0,36] for GPI. Only used when psfs_func_list is not None.
 residuals – If True (Default = False) then calculate the residuals of the sat spot fit (gaussian or PSF cube).
 rmbackground – If true (default), remove any background slope to the data stamp.
 add_background2residual – If True (default is false) and if rmbackground was true, it adds the background that was removed to the returned residuals.
Returns:  scalar, Estimation of the peak flux of the satellite spot.
ie Amplitude of the fitted gaussian.
Return type: returned_flux

pyklip.fakes.
airyfit2d
(frame, xguess, yguess, searchrad=5, guessfwhm=3, guesspeak=1)[source]¶ Fits a 2d airy function to the data at point (xguess, yguess)
Parameters:  frame – the data  Array of size (y,x)
 xguess,yguess – location to fit the 2d guassian to (should be pretty accurate)
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 guessfwhm – approximate fwhm to fit to
Returns: the peakflux of the Airy function fwhm: diameter between the first minima along one axis xfit: x position yfit: y position
Return type: peakflux

pyklip.fakes.
convert_pa_to_image_polar
(pa, astr_hdr)[source]¶ Given a position angle (angle to North through East), calculate what polar angle theta (angle from +X CCW towards +Y) it corresponds to
Parameters:  pa – position angle in degrees
 astr_hdr – wcs astrometry header (astropy.wcs)
Returns: polar angle in degrees
Return type: theta

pyklip.fakes.
convert_polar_to_image_pa
(theta, astr_hdr)[source]¶ Reversed engineer from covert_pa_to_image_polar by JB. Actually JB doesn’t quite understand how it works…
Parameters:  theta – parallactic angle in degrees
 astr_hdr – wcs astrometry header (astropy.wcs)
Returns: polar angle in degrees
Return type: theta

pyklip.fakes.
gauss2d
(x0, y0, peak, sigma)[source]¶ 2d symmetric guassian function for guassfit2d
Parameters:  x0,y0 – center of gaussian
 peak – peak amplitude of guassian
 sigma – stddev in both x and y directions

pyklip.fakes.
gaussfit2d
(frame, xguess, yguess, searchrad=5, guessfwhm=3, guesspeak=1, refinefit=True)[source]¶ Fits a 2d gaussian to the data at point (xguess, yguess)
Parameters:  frame – the data  Array of size (y,x)
 xguess,yguess – location to fit the 2d guassian to (should be pretty accurate)
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 guessfwhm – approximate fwhm to fit to
 guesspeak – approximate flux
 refinefit – whether to refine the fit of the position of the guess
Returns: the peakflux of the gaussian fwhm: fwhm of the PFS in pixels xfit: x position (only chagned if refinefit is True) yfit: y position (only chagned if refinefit is True)
Return type: peakflux

pyklip.fakes.
gaussfit2dLSQ
(frame, xguess, yguess, searchrad=5, fit_centroid=False, residuals=False)[source]¶ Estimate satellite spot amplitude (peak value) by fitting a symmetric 2d gaussian. Fit parameters: x,y position, amplitude, standard deviation (same in x and y direction)
Parameters:  frame – the data  Array of size (y,x)
 xguess – x location to fit the 2d guassian to.
 yguess – y location to fit the 2d guassian to.
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 fit_centroid – If False (default), disable the centroid fit and only fit the amplitude and the standard deviation
 residuals – If True (Default = False) then calculate the residuals of the sat spot fit (gaussian or PSF cube).
Returns:  scalar, estimation of the peak flux of the satellite spot.
ie Amplitude of the fitted gaussian.
Return type: returned_flux

pyklip.fakes.
generate_dataset_with_fakes
(dataset, fake_position_dict, fake_flux_dict, spectrum=None, PSF_cube=None, PSF_cube_wvs=None, star_type=None, mute=False, SpT_file_csv=None, real_planets_pos=None, sep_skip_real_pl=None, pa_skip_real_pl=None, dn_per_contrast=None, star_spec=None)[source]¶ Generate spectral datacubes with fake planets. It will do a copy of the cubes read in GPIData after having injected fake planets in them. This new set of cubes can then be reduced in the same manner as the campaign data.
Doesn’t work with remove slice: assumes that the dataset is made of a list of similar datacubes or images.
Parameters:  dataset – An object of type GPIData. The fakes are injected directly into dataset so you should make a copy of dataset prior to running this function. In order for the function to query simbad for the spectral type of the star, the attribute object_name needs to be defined in dataset.
 fake_position_dict –
 Dictionary defining the way the fake planets are positionned
 fake_position_dict[“mode”]=”sector”: Put a planet in each klip sector. Can actually generate several
 datasets in which the planets will be shifted in separation and position angle with respect to one another. It can be usefull for fake based contrast curve calculation. Several parameters needs to be defined.  fake_position_dict[“annuli”]: Number of annulis in the image  fake_position_dict[“subsections”]: Number of angular sections in the image  fake_position_dict[“sep_shift”]: separation shift from the center of the sectors  fake_position_dict[“pa_shift”]: position angle shift from the center of the sectors
 fake_position_dict[“mode”]=”custom”: Put planets at given (separation, position angle).
 The following parameter needs to be defined
 fake_position_dict[“pa_sep_list”]: List of tuple [(r1,pa1),(r2,pa2),…] with each tuple givingthe separation and position angle of each planet to be injected.
 fake_position_dict[“mode”]=”ROC”: Generate fake for ROC curves calculation. Use hardcoded parameters.
 fake_flux_dict:
 Dictionary defining the way in which the flux of the fake is defined.
 fake_flux_dict[“mode”]=”contrast”: Defines the contrast value of the fakes.
 fake_flux_dict[“contrast”]: Contrast of the fake planets
 fake_flux_dict[“mode”]=”SNR”: Defines the brightness of the fakes relatively to the satellite spots.
 fake_flux_dict[“SNR”]: SNR wished for the fake planets.
 fake_flux_dict[“sep_arr”]: Separation sampling of the contrast curve in pixels.
 fake_flux_dict[“contrast_arr”]: 5 sigma contrast curve (planet to star ratio).
 PSF_cube – the psf of the image. A numpy array with shape (wv, y, x)
 PSF_cube_wvs – the wavelegnths that correspond to the input psfs
 spectrum –
spectrum name (string) or array  “host_star_spec”: The spectrum from the star or the satellite spots is directly used.
It is derived from the inverse of the calibrate_output() output. ”constant”: Use a constant spectrum np.ones(nl).
 other strings: name of the spectrum file in #pykliproot#/spectra/*/ with pykliproot the
 directory in which pyklip is installed. It that case it should be a spectrum from Mark Marley or one following the same convention. Spectrum will be corrected for transmission.
 ndarray: 1D array with a user defined spectrum. Spectrum will be corrected for transmission.
 star_type – Spectral type of the current star. If None, Simbad is queried.
 mute – If True prevent printed log outputs.
 suffix – Suffix to be added at the end of the filenames.
 SpT_file_csv – Filename of the table (.csv) contaning the spectral type of the stars.
 real_planets_pos – list of position of real point sources in the dataset that should be avoided when injecting fakes. [(sep1,pa1),(sep2,pa2),…] with the separation in pixels and the position angle in degrees.
 sep_skip_real_pl – Limit in seperation of how close a fake can be injected of a known GOI.
 pa_skip_real_pl – Limit in position angle of how close a fake can be injected of a known GOI.
 dn_per_contrast – array of the same size as spectrum giving the conversion between the peak flux of a planet in data number and its contrast.
 star_spec – 1D array stellar spectrum sampling dataset.wvs. Otherwise uses a pickles spectrum in which the temperature in interpolated from the spectral type.

pyklip.fakes.
inject_disk
(frames, centers, inputfluxes, astr_hdrs, pa, fwhm=3.5)[source]¶ Injects a fake disk into a dataset
Parameters:  frames – array of (N,y,x) for N is the total number of frames
 centers – array of size (N,2) of [x,y] coordiantes of the image center
 intputfluxes –
array of size N of the peak flux of the fake disk in each frame OR array of 2D models (North up East left) to inject into the data.
(Disk is assumed to be centered at center of image)  astr_hdrs – array of size N of the WCS headers
 pa – position angles angle (in degrees) of disk plane
 fwhm – if injecting a Gaussian disk (i.e inputfluxes is an array of floats), fwhm of Gaussian
Returns: saves result in input “frames” variable

pyklip.fakes.
inject_planet
(frames, centers, inputflux, astr_hdrs, radius, pa, fwhm=3.5, thetas=None, stampsize=None, field_dependent_correction=None)[source]¶ Injects a fake planet into a dataset either using a Gaussian PSF or an input PSF
Parameters:  frames – array of (N,y,x) for N is the total number of frames
 centers – array of size (N,2) of [x,y] coordiantes of the image center
 inputflux – EITHER array of size N of the peak flux of the fake planet in each frame (will inject a Gaussian PSF) OR array of size (N,psfy,psfx) of template PSFs. The brightnesses should be scaled and the PSFs should be centered at the center of each of the template images
 astr_hdrs – array of size N of the WCS headers
 radius – separation of the planet from the star
 pa – position angle (in degrees) of planet
 fwhm – fwhm (in pixels) of gaussian
 thetas – ignore PA, supply own thetas (CCW angle from +x axis toward +y) array of size N
 stampsize – in pixels, the width of the square stamp to inject the image into. Defaults to 3*fwhm if None
 field_dependent_correction – a function of the form ``output_stamp = correction(input_stamp, input_dx, input_dy) where, input_stamp is a 2D image of shape (y_stamp, x_stamp). input_dx and input_dy have the same shape and represent the offset of each pixel from the star (in pixel units). The function returns an output_stamp of the same shape, but corrected for any field dependent throughputs or distortions.
Returns: saves result in input “frames” variable

pyklip.fakes.
retrieve_planet
(frames, centers, astr_hdrs, sep, pa, searchrad=7, guessfwhm=3.0, guesspeak=1, refinefit=True, thetas=None)[source]¶ Retrives the planet properties from a series of frames given a separation and PA
Parameters:  frames – frames of data to retrieve planet. Can be a single 2D image ([y,x]) for a series/cube ([N,y,x])
 centers – coordiantes of the image center. Can be [2]element lst or an array that matches array of frames [N,2]
 astr_hdrs – astr_hdrs, can be a single one or an array of N of them
 sep – radial distance in pixels
 PA – parallactic angle in degrees
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 guessfwhm – approximate fwhm to fit to
 guesspeak – approximate flux
 refinefit – whether or not to refine the positioning of the planet
 thetas – ignore PA, supply own thetas (CCW angle from +x axis toward +y) single number or array of size N
Returns: (peakflux, x, y, fwhm). A single tuple if one frame passed in. Otherwise an array of tuples
Return type: measured

pyklip.fakes.
retrieve_planet_flux
(frames, centers, astr_hdrs, sep, pa, searchrad=7, guessfwhm=3.0, guesspeak=1, refinefit=False, thetas=None)[source]¶ Retrives the planet flux from a series of frames given a separation and PA
Parameters:  frames – frames of data to retrieve planet. Can be a single 2D image ([y,x]) for a series/cube ([N,y,x])
 centers – coordiantes of the image center. Can be [2]element lst or an array that matches array of frames [N,2]
 astr_hdrs – astr_hdrs, can be a single one or an array of N of them
 sep – radial distance in pixels
 PA – parallactic angle in degrees
 searchrad – 1/2 the length of the box used for the fit
 guessfwhm – approximate fwhm to fit to
 guesspeak – approximate flux
 refinefit – whether or not to refine the positioning of the planet
 thetas – ignore PA, supply own thetas (CCW angle from +x axis toward +y) single number or array of size N
Returns:  either a single peak flux or an array depending on whether a single frame or multiple frames
where passed in
Return type: peakflux
pyklip.fitpsf module¶

class
pyklip.fitpsf.
FMAstrometry
(guess_sep, guess_pa, fitboxsize, method='mcmc')[source]¶ Bases:
pyklip.fitpsf.FitPSF
Specifically for fitting astrometry of a directly imaged companion relative to its star. Extension of
pyklip.fitpsf.FitPSF
.Parameters:  guess_sep – the guessed separation (pixels)
 guess_pa – the guessed position angle (degrees)
 fitboxsize – fitting box side length (pixels)
 method (str) – either ‘mcmc’ or ‘maxl’ depending on framework you want. Defaults to ‘mcmc’.

guess_sep
¶ (initialization) guess separation for planet [pixels]
Type: float

guess_pa
¶ (initialization) guess PA for planet [degrees]
Type: float

guess_RA_offset
¶ (initialization) guess RA offset [pixels]
Type: float

guess_Dec_offset
¶ (initialization) guess Dec offset [pixels]
Type: float

raw_RA_offset
¶ (result) the raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_Dec_offset
¶ (result) the raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_flux
¶ (result) factor to scale the FM to match the flux of the data
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

covar_params
¶ (result) hyperparameters for the Gaussian process
Type: list of pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_sep
¶ (result) the inferred raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_PA
¶ (result) the inferred raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [degrees]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

RA_offset
¶ (result) the RA offset of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

Dec_offset
¶ (result) the Dec offset of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

sep
¶ (result) the separation of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

PA
¶ (result) the PA of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [degrees]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

fm_stamp
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the forward model (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location)
Type: np.array

data_stamp
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the data (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location)
Type: np.array

noise_map
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the noise for each pixel the data computed assuming azimuthally similar noise
Type: np.array

padding
¶ amount of pixels on one side to pad the data/forward model stamp
Type: int

sampler
¶ an instance of the emcee EnsambleSampler. Only for Bayesian fit. See emcee docs for more details.
Type: emcee.EnsembleSampler

fit_astrometry
(nwalkers=100, nburn=200, nsteps=800, save_chain=True, chain_output='bkachain.pkl', numthreads=None)[source]¶ Fits the PSF of the planet in either a frequentist or Bayesian way depending on initialization.
Parameters:  nwalkers – number of walkers (mcmconly)
 nburn – numbe of samples of burnin for each walker (mcmconly)
 nsteps – number of samples each walker takes (mcmconly)
 save_chain – if True, save the output in a pickled file (mcmconly)
 chain_output – filename to output the chain to (mcmconly)
 numthreads – number of threads to use (mcmconly)
Returns:

generate_data_stamp
(data, data_center, data_wcs=None, noise_map=None, dr=4, exclusion_radius=10)[source]¶ Generate a stamp of the data_stamp ~centered on planet and also corresponding noise map
Parameters:  data – the final collapsed data_stamp (2D)
 data_center – location of star in the data_stamp.
 data_wcs – sky angles WCS object. To rotate the image properly [NOT YET IMPLMETNED] if None, data_stamp is already rotated North up East left
 noise_map – if not None, noise map for each pixel in the data_stamp (2D). if None, one will be generated assuming azimuthal noise using an annulus widthh of dr
 dr – width of annulus in pixels from which the noise map will be generated
 exclusion_radius – radius around the guess planet location which doens’t get factored into noise estimate
Returns:

generate_fm_stamp
(fm_image, fm_center, fm_wcs=None, extract=True, padding=5)[source]¶ Generates a stamp of the forward model and stores it in self.fm_stamp :param fm_image: full imgae containing the fm_stamp :param fm_center: [x,y] center of image (assuing fm_stamp is located at sep/PA) corresponding to guess_sep and guess_pa :param fm_wcs: if not None, specifies the sky angles in the image. If None, assume image is North up East left :param extract: if True, need to extract the forward model from the image. Otherwise, assume the fm_stamp is already
centered in the frame (fm_image.shape // 2)Parameters: padding – number of pixels on each side in addition to the fitboxsize to extract to pad the fm_stamp (should be >= 1) Returns:

propogate_errs
(star_center_err=None, platescale=None, platescale_err=None, pa_offset=None, pa_uncertainty=None)[source]¶ Propogate astrometric error. Stores results in its own fields
Parameters:  star_center_err (float) – uncertainity of the star location (pixels)
 platescale (float) – mas/pix conversion to angular coordinates
 platescale_err (float) – mas/pix error on the platescale
 pa_offset (float) – Offset, in the same direction as position angle, to set North up (degrees)
 pa_uncertainity (float) – Error on position angle/true North calibration (Degrees)

class
pyklip.fitpsf.
FitPSF
(fitboxsize, method='mcmc')[source]¶ Bases:
object
Base class to perform astrometry on direct imaging data_stamp using GP regression. Can utilize a Bayesian framework with MCMC or a frequentist framework with least squares.
Parameters:  fitboxsize – fitting box side length (pixels)
 method (str) – either ‘mcmc’ or ‘maxl’ depending on framework you want. Defaults to ‘mcmc’.
 fmt (str) – either ‘seppa’ or ‘xy’ depending on how you want to input the guess coordiantes

guess_x
¶ (initialization) guess x position [pixels]
Type: float

guess_y
¶ (initialization) guess y positon [pixels]
Type: float

guess_flux
¶ guess scale factor between model and data
Type: float

fit_x
¶ (result) the result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

fit_y
¶ (result) the result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

fit_flux
¶ (result) factor to scale the FM to match the flux of the data
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

covar_params
¶ (result) hyperparameters for the Gaussian processa
Type: list of pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

fm_stamp
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the forward model (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location)
Type: np.array

data_stamp
¶ (fitting) The stamp of the data (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location) (2D unless there were NaNs in which 1D)
Type: np.array

noise_map
¶ (fitting) The stamp of the noise for each pixel the data computed assuming azimuthally similar noise (same dim as data_stamp)
Type: np.array

padding
¶ amount of pixels on one side to pad the data/forward model stamp
Type: int

sampler
¶ an instance of the emcee EnsambleSampler. Only for Bayesian fit. See emcee docs for more details.
Type: emcee.EnsembleSampler

best_fit_and_residuals
(fig=None)[source]¶ Generate a plot of the best fit FM compared with the data_stamp and also the residuals :param fig: if not None, a matplotlib Figure object :type fig: matplotlib.Figure
Returns: the Figure object. If input fig is None, function will make a new one Return type: fig (matplotlib.Figure)

fit_psf
(nwalkers=100, nburn=200, nsteps=800, save_chain=True, chain_output='bkachain.pkl', numthreads=None)[source]¶ Fits the PSF to the data in either a frequentist or Bayesian way depending on initialization.
Parameters:  nwalkers – number of walkers (mcmconly)
 nburn – numbe of samples of burnin for each walker (mcmconly)
 nsteps – number of samples each walker takes (mcmconly)
 save_chain – if True, save the output in a pickled file (mcmconly)
 chain_output – filename to output the chain to (mcmconly)
 numthreads – number of threads to use (mcmconly)
Returns:

generate_data_stamp
(data, guess_loc, noise_map, radial_noise_center=None, dr=4, exclusion_radius=10)[source]¶ Generate a stamp of the data_stamp ~centered on planet and also corresponding noise map :param data: the final collapsed data_stamp (2D) :param guess_loc: guess location of where to fit the model in the data :param noise_map: if not None, noise map for each pixel (either same shape as input data, or shape of data stamp)
if None, one will be generated assuming azimuthal noise using an annulus widthh of dr. radial_noise_center MUST be defined.Parameters:  radial_noise_center – if we assume the noise is azimuthally symmetric and changes radially, this is the [x,y] center for it
 dr – width of annulus in pixels from which the noise map will be generated
 exclusion_radius – radius around the guess planet location which doens’t get factored into the radial noise estimate
Returns:

generate_fm_stamp
(fm_image, fm_pos=None, fm_wcs=None, extract=True, padding=5)[source]¶ Generates a stamp of the forward model and stores it in self.fm_stamp :param fm_image: full image containing the fm_stamp :param fm_pos: [x,y] location of the forwrd model in the fm_image :param fm_wcs: if not None, specifies the sky angles in the image. If None, assume image is North up East left :param extract: if True, need to extract the forward model from the image. Otherwise, assume the fm_stamp is already
centered in the frame (fm_image.shape // 2)Parameters: padding – number of pixels on each side in addition to the fitboxsize to extract to pad the fm_stamp (should be >= 1) Returns:

guess_flux

make_corner_plot
(fig=None)[source]¶ Generate a corner plot of the posteriors from the MCMC :param fig: if not None, a matplotlib Figure object
Returns: the Figure object. If input fig is None, function will make a new one Return type: fig

set_bounds
(dx, dy, df, covar_param_bounds, read_noise_bounds=None)[source]¶ Set bounds on Bayesian priors. All paramters can be a 2 element tuple/list/array that specifies the lower and upper bounds x_min < x < x_max. Or a single value whose interpretation is specified below If you are passing in both lower and upper bounds, both should be in linear scale! :param dx: Distance from initial guess position in pixels. For a single value, this specifies the largest distance
form the initial guess (i.e. x_guess  dx < x < x_guess + dx)Parameters:  dy – Same as dx except with y
 df – Flux range. If single value, specifies how many orders of 10 the flux factor can span in one direction (i.e. log_10(guess_flux)  df < log_10(guess_flux) < log_10(guess_flux) + df
 covar_param_bounds – Params for covariance matrix. Like df, single value specifies how many orders of magnitude parameter can span. Otherwise, should be a list of 2elem touples
 read_noise_bounds – Param for read noise term. If single value, specifies how close to 0 it can go based on powers of 10 (i.e. log_10(read_noise_bound) < read_noise < 1 )
Returns:

set_kernel
(covar, covar_param_guesses, covar_param_labels, include_readnoise=False, read_noise_fraction=0.01)[source]¶ Set the Gaussian process kernel used in our fit
Parameters:  covar – Covariance kernel for GP regression. If string, can be “matern32” or “sqexp” or “diag” Can also be a function: cov = cov_function(x_indices, y_indices, sigmas, cov_params)
 covar_param_guesses – a list of guesses on the hyperparmeteres (size of N_hyperparams). This can be an empty list for ‘diag’.
 covar_param_labels – a list of strings labelling each covariance parameter
 include_readnoise – if True, part of the noise is a purely diagonal term (i.e. read/photon noise)
 read_noise_fraction – fraction of the total measured noise is read noise (between 0 and 1)
Returns:

class
pyklip.fitpsf.
ParamRange
(bestfit, err_range)[source]¶ Bases:
object
Stores the best fit value and uncertainities for a parameter in a neat fasion
Parameters:  bestfit (float) – the bestfit value
 err_range – either a float or a 2element tuple (+val1, val2) and gives the 1sigma range

bestfit
¶ the bestfit value
Type: float

error
¶ the average 1sigma error
Type: float

error_2sided
¶ [+error1, error2] 2element array with asymmetric errors
Type: np.array

class
pyklip.fitpsf.
PlanetEvidence
(guess_sep, guess_pa, fitboxsize, sampling_outputdir, l_only=False, fm_basename='Planet', null_basename='Null')[source]¶ Bases:
pyklip.fitpsf.FMAstrometry
Specifically for nested sampling of the parameter space of a directly imaged companion relative to its star. Extension of
pyklip.fitpsf.FitPSF
.Parameters:  guess_sep – the guessed separation (pixels)
 guess_pa – the guessed position angle (degrees)
 fitboxsize – fitting box side length (pixels)
 fm_basename – Prefix of the foward model sampling files multinest saves in /chains/
 null_basename – Prefix of the null hypothesis model sampling files multinest saves in /chains/

guess_sep
¶ (initialization) guess separation for planet [pixels]
Type: float

guess_pa
¶ (initialization) guess PA for planet [degrees]
Type: float

guess_RA_offset
¶ (initialization) guess RA offset [pixels]
Type: float

guess_Dec_offset
¶ (initialization) guess Dec offset [pixels]
Type: float

raw_RA_offset
¶ (result) the raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_Dec_offset
¶ (result) the raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_flux
¶ (result) factor to scale the FM to match the flux of the data
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

covar_params
¶ (result) hyperparameters for the Gaussian process
Type: list of pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_sep
¶ (result) the inferred raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [pixels]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

raw_PA
¶ (result) the inferred raw result from the MCMC fit for the planet’s location [degrees]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

RA_offset
¶ (result) the RA offset of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

Dec_offset
¶ (result) the Dec offset of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

sep
¶ (result) the separation of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [pixels or mas]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

PA
¶ (result) the PA of the planet that includes all astrometric errors [degrees]
Type: pyklip.fitpsf.ParamRange

fm_stamp
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the forward model (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location)
Type: np.array

data_stamp
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the data (centered at the nearest pixel to the guessed location)
Type: np.array

noise_map
¶ (fitting) The 2D stamp of the noise for each pixel the data computed assuming azimuthally similar noise
Type: np.array

padding
¶ amount of pixels on one side to pad the data/forward model stamp
Type: int

sampler
¶ function that runs the pymultinest sampling for both hypotheses
Type: pymultinest.run

pyklip.fitpsf.
lnlike
(fitparams, fma, cov_func, readnoise=False, negate=False)[source]¶ Likelihood function :param fitparams: array of params (size N). First three are [dRA,dDec,f]. Additional parameters are GP hyperparams
dRA,dDec: RA,Dec offsets from star. Also coordianaes in self.data_{RA,Dec}_offset f: flux scale factor to normalizae the flux of the data_stamp to the modelParameters:  fma (FMAstrometry) – a FMAstrometry object that has been fully set up to run
 cov_func (function) – function that given an input [x,y] coordinate array returns the covariance matrix e.g. cov = cov_function(x_indices, y_indices, sigmas, cov_params)
 readnoise (bool) – If True, the last fitparam fits for diagonal noise
 negate (bool) – if True, negatives the probability (used for minimization algos)
Returns: log of likelihood function (minus a constant factor)
Return type: likeli

pyklip.fitpsf.
lnprior
(fitparams, bounds, readnoise=False, negate=False)[source]¶ Bayesian prior
Parameters:  fitparams – array of params (size N)
 bounds – array of (N,2) with corresponding lower and upper bound of params bounds[i,0] <= fitparams[i] < bounds[i,1]
 readnoise (bool) – If True, the last fitparam fits for diagonal noise
 negate (bool) – if True, negatives the probability (used for minimization algos)
Returns: 0 if inside bound ranges, inf if outside
Return type: prior

pyklip.fitpsf.
lnprob
(fitparams, fma, bounds, cov_func, readnoise=False, negate=False)[source]¶ Function to compute the relative posterior probabiltiy. Product of likelihood and prior :param fitparams: array of params (size N). First three are [dRA,dDec,f]. Additional parameters are GP hyperparams
dRA,dDec: RA,Dec offsets from star. Also coordianaes in self.data_{RA,Dec}_offset f: flux scale factor to normalizae the flux of the data_stamp to the modelParameters:  fma – a FMAstrometry object that has been fully set up to run
 bounds – array of (N,2) with corresponding lower and upper bound of params bounds[i,0] <= fitparams[i] < bounds[i,1]
 cov_func – function that given an input [x,y] coordinate array returns the covariance matrix e.g. cov = cov_function(x_indices, y_indices, sigmas, cov_params)
 readnoise (bool) – If True, the last fitparam fits for diagonal noise
 negate (bool) – if True, negatives the probability (used for minimization algos)
Returns:

pyklip.fitpsf.
quick_psf_fit
(data, psf, x_guess, y_guess, fitboxsize)[source]¶ A wrapper for a quick maximum likelihood fit to a PSF to the data.
Parameters:  data (np.array) – 2D data frame
 psf (np.array) – 2D PSF template. This should be smaller than the size of data and larger than the fitboxsize
 x_guess (float) – approximate x position of the location you are fitting the psf to
 y_guess (float) – approximate y position of the location you are fitting the psf to
 fitboxsize (int) – fitting region is a square. This is the lenght of one side of the square
Returns: x_fit, y_fit, flux_fit x_fit (float): x position y_fit (float): y position flux_fit (float): multiplicative scale factor for the psf to match the data
pyklip.fm module¶

pyklip.fm.
calculate_fm
(delta_KL_nospec, original_KL, numbasis, sci, model_sci, inputflux=None)[source]¶ Calculate what the PSF looks up postKLIP using knowledge of the input PSF, assumed spectrum of the science target, and the partially calculated KL modes (Delta Z_k^lambda in Laurent’s paper). If inputflux is None, the spectral dependence has already been folded into delta_KL_nospec (treat it as delta_KL).
Note: if inputflux is None and delta_KL_nospec has three dimensions (ie delta_KL_nospec was calculated using pertrurb_nospec() or perturb_nospec_modelsBased()) then only klipped_oversub and klipped_selfsub are returned. Besides they will have an extra first spectral dimension.
Parameters:  delta_KL_nospec – perturbed KL modes but without the spectral info. delta_KL = spectrum x delta_Kl_nospec. Shape is (numKL, wv, pix). If inputflux is None, delta_KL_nospec = delta_KL
 orignal_KL – unpertrubed KL modes (array of size [numbasis, numpix])
 numbasis – array of KL mode cutoffs If numbasis is [None] the number of KL modes to be used is automatically picked based on the eigenvalues.
 sci – array of size p representing the science data
 model_sci – array of size p corresponding to the PSF of the science frame
 input_spectrum – array of size wv with the assumed spectrum of the model
If delta_KL_nospec does NOT include a spectral dimension or if inputflux is not None: :returns:
 array of shape (b,p) showing the forward modelled PSF
 Skipped if inputflux = None, and delta_KL_nospec has 3 dimensions.
klipped_oversub: array of shape (b, p) showing the effect of oversubtraction as a function of KL modes klipped_selfsub: array of shape (b, p) showing the effect of selfsubtraction as a function of KL modes Note: psf_FM = model_sci  klipped_oversub  klipped_selfsub to get the FM psf as a function of K Lmodes
(shape of b,p)Return type: fm_psf If inputflux = None and if delta_KL_nospec include a spectral dimension: :returns: Sum(<SKL>KL) with klipped_oversub.shape = (size(numbasis),Npix)
klipped_selfsub: Sum(<NDKL>KL) + Sum(<NKL>DKL) with klipped_selfsub.shape = (size(numbasis),N_lambda or N_ref,N_pix)Return type: klipped_oversub

pyklip.fm.
calculate_fm_singleNumbasis
(delta_KL_nospec, original_KL, numbasis, sci, model_sci, inputflux=None)[source]¶ Same function as calculate_fm() but faster when numbasis has only one element. It doesn’t do the mutliplication with the triangular matrix.
Calculate what the PSF looks up postKLIP using knowledge of the input PSF, assumed spectrum of the science target, and the partially calculated KL modes (Delta Z_k^lambda in Laurent’s paper). If inputflux is None, the spectral dependence has already been folded into delta_KL_nospec (treat it as delta_KL).
Note: if inputflux is None and delta_KL_nospec has three dimensions (ie delta_KL_nospec was calculated using pertrurb_nospec() or perturb_nospec_modelsBased()) then only klipped_oversub and klipped_selfsub are returned. Besides they will have an extra first spectral dimension.
Parameters:  delta_KL_nospec – perturbed KL modes but without the spectral info. delta_KL = spectrum x delta_Kl_nospec. Shape is (numKL, wv, pix). If inputflux is None, delta_KL_nospec = delta_KL
 orignal_KL – unpertrubed KL modes (array of size [numbasis, numpix])
 numbasis – array of (ONE ELEMENT ONLY) KL mode cutoffs If numbasis is [None] the number of KL modes to be used is automatically picked based on the eigenvalues.
 sci – array of size p representing the science data
 model_sci – array of size p corresponding to the PSF of the science frame
 input_spectrum – array of size wv with the assumed spectrum of the model
If delta_KL_nospec does NOT include a spectral dimension or if inputflux is not None: :returns:
 array of shape (b,p) showing the forward modelled PSF
 Skipped if inputflux = None, and delta_KL_nospec has 3 dimensions.
klipped_oversub: array of shape (b, p) showing the effect of oversubtraction as a function of KL modes klipped_selfsub: array of shape (b, p) showing the effect of selfsubtraction as a function of KL modes Note: psf_FM = model_sci  klipped_oversub  klipped_selfsub to get the FM psf as a function of K Lmodes
(shape of b,p)Return type: fm_psf If inputflux = None and if delta_KL_nospec include a spectral dimension: :returns: Sum(<SKL>KL) with klipped_oversub.shape = (size(numbasis),Npix)
klipped_selfsub: Sum(<NDKL>KL) + Sum(<NKL>DKL) with klipped_selfsub.shape = (size(numbasis),N_lambda or N_ref,N_pix)Return type: klipped_oversub

pyklip.fm.
calculate_validity
(covar_perturb, models_ref, numbasis, evals_orig, covar_orig, evecs_orig, KL_orig, delta_KL)[source]¶  Calculate the validity of the perturbation based on the eigenvalues or the 2nd order term compared
 to the 0th order term of the covariance matrix expansion
Parameters:  evals_perturb – linear expansion of the perturbed covariance matrix (C_AS). Shape of N x N
 models_ref – N x p array of the N models corresponding to reference images. Each model should contain spectral information
 numbasis – array of KL mode cutoffs
 evevs_orig – size of [N, maxKL]
Returns: perturbed KL modes. Shape is (numKL, wv, pix)
Return type: delta_KL_nospec

pyklip.fm.
find_id_nearest
(array, value)[source]¶ Find index of the closest value in input array to input value :param array: 1D array :param value: scalar value
Returns: Index of the nearest value in array

pyklip.fm.
klip_dataset
(dataset, fm_class, mode='ADI+SDI', outputdir='.', fileprefix='pyklipfm', annuli=5, subsections=4, OWA=None, N_pix_sector=None, movement=None, flux_overlap=0.1, PSF_FWHM=3.5, minrot=0, padding=0, numbasis=None, maxnumbasis=None, numthreads=None, corr_smooth=1, calibrate_flux=False, aligned_center=None, psf_library=None, spectrum=None, highpass=False, annuli_spacing='constant', save_klipped=True, mute_progression=False, time_collapse='mean')[source]¶ Run KLIPFM on a dataset object
Parameters:  dataset – an instance of Instrument.Data (see instruments/ subfolder)
 fm_class – class that implements the the forward modelling functionality
 mode – some combination of ADI, SDI, and RDI (e.g. “ADI+SDI”, “RDI”). Note that note all FM classes support RDI.
 anuuli – Annuli to use for KLIP. Can be a number, or a list of 2element tuples (a, b) specifying the pixel bondaries (a <= r < b) for each annulus
 subsections – Sections to break each annuli into. Can be a number [integer], or a list of 2element tuples (a, b) specifying the positon angle boundaries (a <= PA < b) for each section [radians]
 OWA – if defined, the outer working angle for pyklip. Otherwise, it will pick it as the cloest distance to a nan in the first frame
 N_pix_sector –
Rough number of pixels in a sector. Overwriting subsections and making it sepration dependent. The number of subsections is defined such that the number of pixel is just higher than N_pix_sector. I.e. subsections = floor(pi*(r_max^2r_min^2)/N_pix_sector) Warning: There is a bug if N_pix_sector is too big for the first annulus. The annulus is defined from
0 to 2pi which create a bug later on. It is probably in the way pa_start and pa_end are defined in fm_from_eigen(). (I am taking about matched filter by the way)  movement – minimum amount of movement (in pixels) of an astrophysical source to consider using that image for a refernece PSF
 flux_overlap – Maximum fraction of flux overlap between a slice and any reference frames included in the covariance matrix. Flux_overlap should be used instead of “movement” when a template spectrum is used. However if movement is not None then the old code is used and flux_overlap is ignored. The overlap is estimated for 1D gaussians with FWHM defined by PSF_FWHM. So note that the overlap is not exactly the overlap of two real 2D PSF for a given instrument but it will behave similarly.
 PSF_FWHM – FWHM of the PSF used to calculate the overlap (cf flux_overlap). Default is FWHM = 3.5 corresponding to sigma ~ 1.5.
 minrot – minimum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (good for disks)
 padding – for each sector, how many extra pixels of padding should we have around the sides.
 numbasis – number of KL basis vectors to use (can be a scalar or list like). Length of b If numbasis is [None] the number of KL modes to be used is automatically picked based on the eigenvalues.
 maxnumbasis – Number of KL modes to be calculated from whcih numbasis modes will be taken.
 corr_smooth (float) – size of sigma of Gaussian smoothing kernel (in pixels) when computing most correlated PSFs. If 0, no smoothing
 numthreads – number of threads to use. If none, defaults to using all the cores of the cpu
 calibrate_flux – if true, flux calibrates the regular KLIP subtracted data. DOES NOT CALIBRATE THE FM
 aligned_center – array of 2 elements [x,y] that all the KLIP subtracted images will be centered on for image registration
 psf_library – a rdi.PSFLibrary object with a PSF Library for RDI
 spectrum –
 (only applicable for SDI) if not None, optimizes the choice of the reference PSFs based on the
 spectrum shape.
 an array: of length N with the flux of the template spectrum at each wavelength.
 a string: Currently only supports “methane” between 1 and 10 microns.
Uses minmove to determine the separation from the center of the segment to determine contamination and the size of the PSF (TODO: make PSF size another quantity) (e.g. minmove=3, checks how much contamination is within 3 pixels of the hypothetical source) if smaller than 10%, (hard coded quantity), then use it for reference PSF
 highpass – if True, run a Gaussian high pass filter (default size is sigma=imgsize/10) can also be a number specifying FWHM of box in pixel units
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
 save_klipped – if True, will save the regular klipped image. If false, it wil not and sub_imgs will return None
 mute_progression – Mute the printing of the progression percentage. Indeed sometimes the overwriting feature doesn’t work and one ends up with thousands of printed lines. Therefore muting it can be a good idea.
 time_collapse – how to collapse the data in time. Currently support: “mean”, “weightedmean”

pyklip.fm.
klip_math
(sci, refs, numbasis, covar_psfs=None, model_sci=None, models_ref=None, spec_included=False, spec_from_model=False)[source]¶ linear algebra of KLIP with linear perturbation disks and point source
Parameters:  sci – array of length p containing the science data
 refs – N x p array of the N reference images that characterizes the extended source with p pixels
 numbasis – number of KLIP basis vectors to use (can be an int or an array of ints of length b) If numbasis is [None] the number of KL modes to be used is automatically picked based on the eigenvalues.
 covar_psfs – covariance matrix of reference images (for large N, useful). Normalized following numpy normalization in np.cov documentation
 The following arguments must all be passed in, or none of them for klip_math to work (#) –
 models_ref – N x p array of the N models corresponding to reference images. Each model should be normalized to unity (no flux information)
 model_sci – array of size p corresponding to the PSF of the science frame
 Sel_wv – wv x N array of the the corresponding wavelength for each reference PSF
 input_spectrum – array of size wv with the assumed spectrum of the model
Returns:  array of shape (p,b) that is the PSF subtracted data for each of the b KLIP basis
cutoffs. If numbasis was an int, then sub_img_row_selected is just an array of length p
KL_basis: array of KL basis (shape of [numbasis, p]) If models_ref is passed in (not None):
delta_KL_nospec: array of shape (b, wv, p) that is the almost perturbed KL modes just missing spectral info
 Otherwise:
evals: array of eigenvalues (size of max number of KL basis requested aka nummaxKL) evecs: array of corresponding eigenvectors (shape of [p, nummaxKL])
Return type: sub_img_rows_selected

pyklip.fm.
klip_parallelized
(imgs, centers, parangs, wvs, IWA, fm_class, OWA=None, mode='ADI+SDI', annuli=5, subsections=4, movement=None, flux_overlap=0.1, PSF_FWHM=3.5, numbasis=None, maxnumbasis=None, corr_smooth=1, aligned_center=None, numthreads=None, minrot=0, maxrot=360, spectrum=None, psf_library=None, psf_library_good=None, psf_library_corr=None, padding=0, save_klipped=True, flipx=True, N_pix_sector=None, mute_progression=False, annuli_spacing='constant', compute_noise_cube=False)[source]¶ multithreaded KLIP PSF Subtraction
Parameters:  imgs – array of 2D images for ADI. Shape of array (N,y,x)
 centers – N by 2 array of (x,y) coordinates of image centers
 parangs – N length array detailing parallactic angle of each image
 wvs – N length array of the wavelengths
 IWA – inner working angle (in pixels)
 fm_class – class that implements the the forward modelling functionality
 OWA – if defined, the outer working angle for pyklip. Otherwise, it will pick it as the cloest distance to a nan in the first frame
 mode – one of [‘ADI’, ‘SDI’, ‘ADI+SDI’] for ADI, SDI, or ADI+SDI
 anuuli – Annuli to use for KLIP. Can be a number, or a list of 2element tuples (a, b) specifying the pixel bondaries (a <= r < b) for each annulus
 subsections – Sections to break each annuli into. Can be a number [integer], or a list of 2element tuples (a, b) specifying the positon angle boundaries (a <= PA < b) for each section [radians]
 N_pix_sector –
Rough number of pixels in a sector. Overwriting subsections and making it sepration dependent. The number of subsections is defined such that the number of pixel is just higher than N_pix_sector. I.e. subsections = floor(pi*(r_max^2r_min^2)/N_pix_sector) Warning: There is a bug if N_pix_sector is too big for the first annulus. The annulus is defined from
0 to 2pi which create a bug later on. It is probably in the way pa_start and pa_end are defined in fm_from_eigen().  movement – minimum amount of movement (in pixels) of an astrophysical source to consider using that image for a refernece PSF
 flux_overlap – Maximum fraction of flux overlap between a slice and any reference frames included in the covariance matrix. Flux_overlap should be used instead of “movement” when a template spectrum is used. However if movement is not None then the old code is used and flux_overlap is ignored. The overlap is estimated for 1D gaussians with FWHM defined by PSF_FWHM. So note that the overlap is not exactly the overlap of two real 2D PSF for a given instrument but it will behave similarly.
 PSF_FWHM – FWHM of the PSF used to calculate the overlap (cf flux_overlap). Default is FWHM = 3.5 corresponding to sigma ~ 1.5.
 numbasis – number of KL basis vectors to use (can be a scalar or list like). Length of b If numbasis is [None] the number of KL modes to be used is automatically picked based on the eigenvalues.
 maxnumbasis – Number of KL modes to be calculated from whcih numbasis modes will be taken.
 corr_smooth (float) – size of sigma of Gaussian smoothing kernel (in pixels) when computing most correlated PSFs. If 0, no smoothing
 aligned_center – array of 2 elements [x,y] that all the KLIP subtracted images will be centered on for image registration
 numthreads – number of threads to use. If none, defaults to using all the cores of the cpu
 minrot – minimum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (good for disks)
 maxrot – maximum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (temporal variability)
 spectrum – if not None, a array of length N with the flux of the template spectrum at each wavelength. Uses minmove to determine the separation from the center of the segment to determine contamination and the size of the PSF (TODO: make PSF size another quanitity) (e.g. minmove=3, checks how much containmination is within 3 pixels of the hypothetical source) if smaller than 10%, (hard coded quantity), then use it for reference PSF
 padding – for each sector, how many extra pixels of padding should we have around the sides.
 save_klipped – if True, will save the regular klipped image. If false, it wil not and sub_imgs will return None
 flipx – if True, flips x axis after rotation to get North up East left
 mute_progression – Mute the printing of the progression percentage. Indeed sometimes the overwriting feature doesn’t work and one ends up with thousands of printed lines. Therefore muting it can be a good idea.
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
 compute_noise_cube – if True, compute the noise in each pixel assuming azimuthally uniform noise
Returns:  array of [array of 2D images (PSF subtracted)] using different number of KL basis vectors as
specified by numbasis. Shape of (b,N,y,x).
Note: this will be None if save_klipped is False
fmout_np: output of forward modelling. perturbmag: output indicating the magnitude of the linear perturbation to assess validity of KLIP FM aligned_center: (x, y) location indicating the star center for all images and FM after PSF subtraction
Return type: sub_imgs

pyklip.fm.
pertrurb_nospec
(evals, evecs, original_KL, refs, models_ref)[source]¶ Perturb the KL modes using a model of the PSF but with no assumption on the spectrum. Useful for planets.
By no assumption on the spectrum it means that the spectrum has been factored out of Delta_KL following equation (4) of Laurent Pueyo 2016 noted bold “Delta Z_k^lambda (x)”. In order to get the actual perturbed KL modes one needs to multpily it by a spectrum.
This function fits each cube’s spectrum independently. So the effective spectrum size is N_wavelengths * N_cubes.
Parameters:  evals – array of eigenvalues of the reference PSF covariance matrix (array of size numbasis)
 evecs – corresponding eigenvectors (array of size [p, numbasis])
 orignal_KL – unpertrubed KL modes (array of size [numbasis, p])
 Sel_wv – wv x N array of the the corresponding wavelength for each reference PSF
 refs – N x p array of the N reference images that characterizes the extended source with p pixels
 models_ref – N x p array of the N models corresponding to reference images. Each model should be normalized to unity (no flux information)
 model_sci – array of size p corresponding to the PSF of the science frame
Returns:  perturbed KL modes but without the spectral info. delta_KL = spectrum x delta_Kl_nospec.
Shape is (numKL, wv, pix)
Return type: delta_KL_nospec

pyklip.fm.
perturb_nospec_modelsBased
(evals, evecs, original_KL, refs, models_ref_list)[source]¶ Perturb the KL modes using a model of the PSF but with no assumption on the spectrum. Useful for planets.
By no assumption on the spectrum it means that the spectrum has been factored out of Delta_KL following equation (4) of Laurent Pueyo 2016 noted bold “Delta Z_k^lambda (x)”. In order to get the actual perturbed KL modes one needs to multpily it by a spectrum.
Effectively does the same thing as pertrurb_nospec() but in a different way. It injects models with dirac spectrum (all but one vanishing wavelength) and because of the linearity of the problem allow one de get reconstruct the perturbed KL mode for any spectrum. The difference however in the pertrurb_nospec() case is that the spectrum here is the asummed to be the same for all
cubes while pertrurb_nospec() fit each cube independently.Parameters:  evals –
 evecs –
 original_KL –
 refs –
 models_ref –
Returns: delta_KL_nospec

pyklip.fm.
perturb_specIncluded
(evals, evecs, original_KL, refs, models_ref, return_perturb_covar=False)[source]¶ Perturb the KL modes using a model of the PSF but with the spectrum included in the model. Quicker than the others
Parameters:  evals – array of eigenvalues of the reference PSF covariance matrix (array of size numbasis)
 evecs – corresponding eigenvectors (array of size [p, numbasis])
 orignal_KL – unpertrubed KL modes (array of size [numbasis, p])
 refs – N x p array of the N reference images that characterizes the extended source with p pixels
 models_ref – N x p array of the N models corresponding to reference images. Each model should contain spectral informatoin
 model_sci – array of size p corresponding to the PSF of the science frame
Returns: perturbed KL modes. Shape is (numKL, wv, pix)
Return type: delta_KL_nospec
pyklip.klip module¶

pyklip.klip.
align_and_scale
(img, new_center, old_center=None, scale_factor=1, dtype=<class 'float'>)[source]¶ Helper function that realigns and/or scales the image
Parameters:  img – 2D image to perform manipulation on
 new_center – 2 element tuple (xpos, ypos) of new image center
 old_center – 2 element tuple (xpos, ypos) of old image center
 scale_factor –
how much the stretch/contract the image. Will we scaled w.r.t the new_center (done after relaignment). We will adopt the convention
>1: stretch image (shorter to longer wavelengths) <1: contract the image (longer to shorter wvs) This means scale factor should be lambda_0/lambda where lambda_0 is the wavelength you want to scale to
Returns: shifted and/or scaled 2D image
Return type: resampled_img

pyklip.klip.
calc_scaling
(sats, refwv=18)[source]¶ Helper function that calculates the wavelength scaling factor from the satellite spot locations. Uses the movement of spots diagonally across from each other, to calculate the scaling in a (hopefully? tbd.) centeringindependent way. This method is definitely temporary and will be replaced by better scaling strategies as we come up with them. Scaling is calculated as the average of (1/2 * sqrt((x_1x_2)**2+(y_1y_2))), over the two pairs of spots.
Parameters:  sats – [4 x Nlambda x 2] array of x and y positions for the 4 satellite spots
 refwv – reference wavelength for scaling (optional, default = 20)
Returns: Nlambda array of scaling factors
Return type: scaling_factors

pyklip.klip.
collapse_data
(data, pixel_weights=None, axis=1, collapse_method='mean')[source]¶ Function to collapse multidimensional data along axis using collapse_method
Parameters:  data – (multidimension)arrays of 2D images or 3D cubes.
 pixel_weights – ones if collapse method is not weighted collapse
 axis – axis index along which to collapse
 collapse_method – currently support ‘median’, ‘mean’, ‘weightedmean’, ‘trimmedmean’, ‘weightedmedian’
Returns: Collapsed data

pyklip.klip.
define_annuli_bounds
(annuli, IWA, OWA, annuli_spacing='constant')[source]¶ Defines the annuli boundaries radially
Parameters:  annuli – number of annuli
 IWA – inner working angle (pixels)
 OWA – outer working anglue (pixels)
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
Returns: array of 2element tuples that specify the beginning and end radius of that annulus
Return type: rad_bounds

pyklip.klip.
estimate_movement
(radius, parang0=None, parangs=None, wavelength0=None, wavelengths=None, mode=None)[source]¶ Estimates the movement of a hypothetical astrophysical source in ADI and/or SDI at the given radius and given reference parallactic angle (parang0) and reference wavelegnth (wavelength0)
Parameters:  radius – the radius from the star of the hypothetical astrophysical source
 parang0 – the parallactic angle of the reference image (in degrees)
 parangs – array of length N of the parallactic angle of all N images (in degrees)
 wavelength0 – the wavelength of the reference image
 wavelengths – array of length N of the wavelengths of all N images
 NOTE – we expect parang0 and parangs to be either both defined or both None. Same with wavelength0 and wavelengths
 mode – one of [‘ADI’, ‘SDI’, ‘ADI+SDI’] for ADI, SDI, or ADI+SDI
Returns:  array of length N of the distance an astrophysical source would have moved from the
reference image
Return type: moves

pyklip.klip.
high_pass_filter
(img, filtersize=10)[source]¶ A FFT implmentation of high pass filter.
Parameters:  img – a 2D image
 filtersize – size in Fourier space of the size of the space. In image space, size=img_size/filtersize
Returns: the filtered image
Return type: filtered

pyklip.klip.
klip_math
(sci, ref_psfs, numbasis, covar_psfs=None, return_basis=False, return_basis_and_eig=False)[source]¶ Helper function for KLIP that does the linear algebra
Parameters:  sci – array of length p containing the science data
 ref_psfs – N x p array of the N reference PSFs that characterizes the PSF of the p pixels
 numbasis – number of KLIP basis vectors to use (can be an int or an array of ints of length b)
 covar_psfs – covariance matrix of reference psfs passed in so you don’t have to calculate it here
 return_basis – If true, return KL basis vectors (used when onesegment==True)
 return_basis_and_eig – If true, return KL basis vectors as well as the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. Used for KLIP Forward Modelling of Laurent Pueyo.
Returns:  array of shape (p,b) that is the PSF subtracted data for each of the b KLIP basis
cutoffs. If numbasis was an int, then sub_img_row_selected is just an array of length p
KL_basis: array of shape (max(numbasis),p). Only if return_basis or return_basis_and_eig is True. evals: Eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. The covariance matrix is assumed NOT to be normalized by (p1).
Only if return_basis_and_eig is True.
 evecs: Eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The covariance matrix is assumed NOT to be normalized by (p1).
Only if return_basis_and_eig is True.
Return type: sub_img_rows_selected

pyklip.klip.
make_polar_coordinates
(x, y, center=[0, 0])[source]¶ Parameters:  x – meshgrid of x coordinates
 y – meshgrid of y coordinates
 center – new location of origin
Returns: polar coordinates centered at the specified origin

pyklip.klip.
meas_contrast
(dat, iwa, owa, resolution, center=None, low_pass_filter=True)[source]¶ Measures the contrast in the image. Image must already be in contrast units and should be corrected for algorithm thoughput.
Parameters:  dat – 2D image  already flux calibrated
 iwa – inner working angle
 owa – outer working angle
 resolution – size of noise resolution element in pixels (for speckle noise ~ FWHM or lambda/D) but it can be 1 pixel if limited by pixeltopixel noise.
 center – location of star (x,y). If None, defaults the image size // 2.
 low_pass_filter – if True, run a low pass filter. Can also be a float which specifices the width of the Gaussian filter (sigma). If False, no Gaussian filter is run
Returns: tuple of separations in pixels and corresponding 5 sigma FPF
Return type: (seps, contrast)

pyklip.klip.
nan_gaussian_filter
(img, sigma, ivar=None)[source]¶ Gaussian lowpass filter that handles nans
Parameters:  img – 2D image
 sigma – float specifiying width of Gaussian
 ivar – inverse variance frame for the image, optional
Returns: 2D image that has been smoothed with a Gaussian
Return type: filtered

pyklip.klip.
nan_map_coordinates_2d
(img, yp, xp, mc_kwargs=None)[source]¶ scipy.ndimage.map_coordinates() that handles nans for 2D transformations. Only works in 2D!
Do NaN detection by defining any pixel in the new coordiante system (xp, yp) as a nan If any one of the neighboring pixels in the original image is a nan (e.g. (xp, yp) = (120.1, 200.1) is nan if either (120, 200), (121, 200), (120, 201), (121, 201) is a nan)
Parameters:  img (np.array) – 2D image that is looking to be transformed
 yp (np.array) – 2D array of ycoordinates that the image is evaluated out
 xp (np.array) – 2D array of xcoordinates that the image is evaluated out
 mc_kwargs (dict) – other parameters to pass into the map_coordinates function.
Returns: 2D transformed image. Each pixel is evaluated at the (yp, xp) specified by xp and yp.
Return type: transformed_img (np.array)

pyklip.klip.
rotate
(img, angle, center, new_center=None, flipx=False, astr_hdr=None)[source]¶ Rotate an image by the given angle about the given center. Optional: can shift the image to a new image center after rotation. Also can reverse x axis for those left
handed astronomy coordinate systemsParameters:  img – a 2D image
 angle – angle CCW to rotate by (degrees)
 center – 2 element list [x,y] that defines the center to rotate the image to respect to
 new_center – 2 element list [x,y] that defines the new image center after rotation
 flipx – reverses x axis after rotation
 astr_hdr – wcs astrometry header for the image
Returns: new 2D image
Return type: resampled_img
pyklip.nmf_imaging module¶
pyklip.parallelized module¶

pyklip.parallelized.
generate_noise_maps
(imgs, aligned_center, dr, IWA=None, OWA=None, numthreads=None, pool=None)[source]¶ Create a noise map for each image. The noise levels are computed using azimuthally averaged noise in the images
Parameters:  imgs – array of shape (N,y,x) containing N images
 aligned_center – [x,y] location of the center. All images should be aligned to common center
 dr (float) – how mnay pixels wide the annulus to compute the noise should be
 IWA (float) – inner working angle (how close to the center of the image to start). If none, this is 0
 OWA (float) – outer working angle (if None, it is the entire image.)
 numthreads – number of threads to be used
 pool – multiprocessing thread pool (optional). To avoid repeatedly creating one when processing a list of images.
Returns: array of shape (N,y,x) containing N noise maps
Return type: noise_maps

pyklip.parallelized.
high_pass_filter_imgs
(imgs, numthreads=None, filtersize=10, pool=None)[source]¶ filters a sequences of images using a FFT
Parameters:  imgs – array of shape (N,y,x) containing N images
 numthreads – number of threads to be used
 filtersize – size in Fourier space of the size of the space. In image space, size=img_size/filtersize
 pool – multiprocessing thread pool (optional). To avoid repeatedly creating one when processing a list of images.
Returns: array of shape (N,y,x) containing the filtered images
Return type: filtered

pyklip.parallelized.
klip_dataset
(dataset, mode='ADI+SDI', outputdir='.', fileprefix='', annuli=5, subsections=4, movement=3, numbasis=None, numthreads=None, minrot=0, calibrate_flux=False, aligned_center=None, annuli_spacing='constant', maxnumbasis=None, corr_smooth=1, spectrum=None, psf_library=None, highpass=False, lite=False, save_aligned=False, restored_aligned=None, dtype=None, algo='klip', time_collapse='mean', wv_collapse='mean', verbose=True)[source]¶ run klip on a dataset class outputted by an implementation of Instrument.Data
Parameters:  dataset – an instance of Instrument.Data (see instruments/ subfolder)
 mode – some combination of ADI, SDI, and RDI (e.g. “ADI+SDI”, “RDI”)
 outputdir – directory to save output files
 fileprefix – filename prefix for saved files
 anuuli – number of annuli to use for KLIP
 subsections – number of sections to break each annuli into
 movement – minimum amount of movement (in pixels) of an astrophysical source to consider using that image for a refernece PSF
 numbasis – number of KL basis vectors to use (can be a scalar or list like). Length of b
 numthreads – number of threads to use. If none, defaults to using all the cores of the cpu
 minrot – minimum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (good for disks)
 calibrate_flux – if True calibrate flux of the dataset, otherwise leave it be
 aligned_center – array of 2 elements [x,y] that all the KLIP subtracted images will be centered on for image registration
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
 maxnumbasis – if not None, maximum number of KL basis/correlated PSFs to use for KLIP. Otherwise, use max(numbasis)
 corr_smooth (float) – size of sigma of Gaussian smoothing kernel (in pixels) when computing most correlated PSFs. If 0, no smoothing
 spectrum – (only applicable for SDI) if not None, optimizes the choice of the reference PSFs based on the spectrum shape.  an array: of length N with the flux of the template spectrum at each wavelength.  a string: Currently only supports “methane” between 1 and 10 microns. Uses minmove to determine the separation from the center of the segment to determine contamination and the size of the PSF (TODO: make PSF size another quantity) (e.g. minmove=3, checks how much contamination is within 3 pixels of the hypothetical source) if smaller than 10%, (hard coded quantity), then use it for reference PSF
 psf_library – if not None, a rdi.PSFLibrary object with a PSF Library for RDI
 highpass – if True, run a Gaussian high pass filter (default size is sigma=imgsize/10) can also be a number specifying FWHM of box in pixel units
 lite – if True, run a low memory version of the alogirhtm
 save_aligned – Save the aligned and scaled images (as well as various wcs information), True/False
 restore_aligned – The aligned and scaled images from a previous run of klip_dataset (usually restored_aligned = dataset.aligned_and_scaled)
 dtype – data type of the arrays. Should be either ctypes.c_float(default) or ctypes.c_double
 algo (str) – algorithm to use (‘klip’, ‘nmf’, ‘empca’, ‘none’). None will run no PSF subtraction.
 time_collapse – how to collapse the data in time. Currently support: “mean”, “weightedmean”, ‘median’, “weightedmedian”
 wv_collapse – how to collapse the data in wavelength. Currently support: ‘median’, ‘mean’, ‘trimmedmean’
 verbose (bool) – if True, print warning messages during KLIP process.
 Returns
Saved files in the output directory Returns: nothing, but saves to dataset.output: (b, N, wv, y, x) 5D cube of KL cutoff modes (b), number of images
(N), wavelengths (wv), and spatial dimensions. Images are derotated. For ADI only, the wv is omitted so only 4D cube

pyklip.parallelized.
klip_parallelized
(imgs, centers, parangs, wvs, filenums, IWA, OWA=None, mode='ADI+SDI', annuli=5, subsections=4, movement=3, numbasis=None, aligned_center=None, numthreads=None, minrot=0, maxrot=360, annuli_spacing='constant', maxnumbasis=None, corr_smooth=1, spectrum=None, psf_library=None, psf_library_good=None, psf_library_corr=None, save_aligned=False, restored_aligned=None, dtype=None, algo='klip', compute_noise_cube=False, verbose=True)[source]¶ Multitprocessed KLIP PSF Subtraction
Parameters:  imgs – array of 2D images for ADI. Shape of array (N,y,x)
 centers – N by 2 array of (x,y) coordinates of image centers
 parangs – N length array detailing parallactic angle of each image
 wvs – N length array of the wavelengths
 filenums (np.array) – array of length N of the filenumber for each image
 IWA – inner working angle (in pixels)
 OWA – outer working angle (in pixels)
 mode – one of [‘ADI’, ‘SDI’, ‘ADI+SDI’] for ADI, SDI, or ADI+SDI
 anuuli – number of annuli to use for KLIP
 subsections – number of sections to break each annuli into
 movement – minimum amount of movement (in pixels) of an astrophysical source to consider using that image for a refernece PSF
 numbasis – number of KL basis vectors to use (can be a scalar or list like). Length of b
 aligned_center – array of 2 elements [x,y] that all the KLIP subtracted images will be centered on for image registration
 numthreads – number of threads to use. If none, defaults to using all the cores of the cpu
 minrot – minimum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (good for disks)
 maxrot – maximum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (temporal variability)
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
 maxnumbasis – if not None, maximum number of KL basis/correlated PSFs to use for KLIP. Otherwise, use max(numbasis)
 corr_smooth (float) – size of sigma of Gaussian smoothing kernel (in pixels) when computing most correlated PSFs. If 0, no smoothing
 spectrum – if not None, a array of length N with the flux of the template spectrum at each wavelength. Uses minmove to determine the separation from the center of the segment to determine contamination and the size of the PSF (TODO: make PSF size another quanitity) (e.g. minmove=3, checks how much containmination is within 3 pixels of the hypothetical source) if smaller than 10%, (hard coded quantity), then use it for reference PSF
 psf_library – array of (N_lib, y, x) with N_lib PSF library PSFs
 psf_library_good – array of size N_lib indicating which N_good are good are selected in the passed in corr matrix
 psf_library_corr – matrix of size N_sci x N_good with correlation between the target franes and the good RDI PSFs
 save_aligned – Save the aligned and scaled images (as well as various wcs information), True/False
 restore_aligned – The aligned and scaled images from a previous run of klip_dataset (usually restored_aligned = dataset.aligned_and_scaled)
 dtype – data type of the arrays. Should be either ctypes.c_float(default) or ctypes.c_double
 algo (str) – algorithm to use (‘klip’, ‘nmf’, ‘empca’)
 compute_noise_cube – if True, compute the noise in each pixel assuming azimuthally uniform noise
Returns:  array of [array of 2D images (PSF subtracted)] using different number of KL basis vectors as
specified by numbasis. Shape of (b,N,y,x).
aligned_center: (x,y) specifying the common center the output images are aligned to
Return type: sub_imgs

pyklip.parallelized.
klip_parallelized_lite
(imgs, centers, parangs, wvs, filenums, IWA, OWA=None, mode='ADI+SDI', annuli=5, subsections=4, movement=3, numbasis=None, aligned_center=None, numthreads=None, minrot=0, maxrot=360, annuli_spacing='constant', maxnumbasis=None, corr_smooth=1, spectrum=None, dtype=None, algo='klip', compute_noise_cube=False, **kwargs)[source]¶ multithreaded KLIP PSF Subtraction, has a smaller memory foot print than the original
Parameters:  imgs – array of 2D images for ADI. Shape of array (N,y,x)
 centers – N by 2 array of (x,y) coordinates of image centers
 parangs – N length array detailing parallactic angle of each image
 wvs – N length array of the wavelengths
 filenums (np.array) – array of length N of the filenumber for each image
 IWA – inner working angle (in pixels)
 OWA – outer working angle (in pixels)
 mode – one of [‘ADI’, ‘SDI’, ‘ADI+SDI’] for ADI, SDI, or ADI+SDI
 anuuli – number of annuli to use for KLIP
 subsections – number of sections to break each annuli into
 movement – minimum amount of movement (in pixels) of an astrophysical source to consider using that image for a refernece PSF
 numbasis – number of KL basis vectors to use (can be a scalar or list like). Length of b
 annuli_spacing – how to distribute the annuli radially. Currently three options. Constant (equally spaced), log (logarithmical expansion with r), and linear (linearly expansion with r)
 maxnumbasis – if not None, maximum number of KL basis/correlated PSFs to use for KLIP. Otherwise, use max(numbasis)
 corr_smooth (float) – size of sigma of Gaussian smoothing kernel (in pixels) when computing most correlated PSFs. If 0, no smoothing
 aligned_center – array of 2 elements [x,y] that all the KLIP subtracted images will be centered on for image registration
 numthreads – number of threads to use. If none, defaults to using all the cores of the cpu
 minrot – minimum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (good for disks)
 maxrot – maximum PA rotation (in degrees) to be considered for use as a reference PSF (temporal variability)
 spectrum – if not None, a array of length N with the flux of the template spectrum at each wavelength. Uses minmove to determine the separation from the center of the segment to determine contamination and the size of the PSF (TODO: make PSF size another quanitity) (e.g. minmove=3, checks how much containmination is within 3 pixels of the hypothetical source) if smaller than 10%, (hard coded quantity), then use it for reference PSF
 kwargs – in case you pass it stuff that we don’t use in the lite version
 dtype – data type of the arrays. Should be either ctypes.c_float (default) or ctypes.c_double
 algo (str) – algorithm to use (‘klip’, ‘nmf’, ‘empca’)
 compute_noise_cube – if True, compute the noise in each pixel assuming azimuthally uniform noise
Returns:  array of [array of 2D images (PSF subtracted)] using different number of KL basis vectors as
specified by numbasis. Shape of (b,N,y,x).
Return type: sub_imgs

pyklip.parallelized.
rotate_imgs
(imgs, angles, centers, new_center=None, numthreads=None, flipx=False, hdrs=None, disable_wcs_rotation=False, pool=None)[source]¶ derotate a sequences of images by their respective angles
Parameters:  imgs – array of shape (N,y,x) containing N images
 angles – array of length N with the angle to rotate each frame. Each angle should be CCW in degrees.
 centers – array of shape N,2 with the [x,y] center of each frame
 new_centers – a 2element array with the new center to register each frame. Default is middle of image
 numthreads – number of threads to be used
 flipx – flip the x axis after rotation if desired
 hdrs – array of N wcs astrometry headers
Returns: array of shape (N,y,x) containing the derotated images
Return type: derotated
pyklip.rdi module¶

class
pyklip.rdi.
PSFLibrary
(data, aligned_center, filenames, correlation_matrix=None, wvs=None, compute_correlation=False)[source]¶ Bases:
object
This is an PSF Library to use for reference differential imaging

master_library
¶ aligned library of PSFs. 3D cube of dim = [N, y, x]. Where N is ALL files
Type: np.ndarray

aligned_center
¶ a (x,y) coordinate specifying common center the library is aligned to
Type: arraylike

master_filenames
¶ array of N filenames for each frame in the library. Should match with pyklip.instruments.Data.filenames for crossmatching
Type: np.ndarray

master_correlation
¶ N x N array of correlations between each 2 frames
Type: np.ndarray

master_wvs
¶ N wavelengths for each frame
Type: np.ndarray

nfiles
¶ the number of files in the PSF library
Type: int

dataset
¶ Type: pyklip.instruments.Instrument.Data

correlation
¶ N_data x M array of correlations between each 2 frames where M are the selected frames and N_data is the number of files in the dataset. Along the N_data dimension, files are ordered in the same way as the dataset object
Type: np.ndarray

isgoodpsf
¶ array of N indicating which M PSFs are good for this dataset
Type: np.ndarray

add_new_dataset_to_library
(dataset, collapse=False, verbose=False)[source]¶ Add all the files from a new dataset to the PSF library and add them to the correlation matrix. If a mask was used for the correlation matrix, use it here too.
NOTE: This routine already assumes that the data has been centered.
Parameters: dataset (pyklip.instruments.Instrument.Data) –

prepare_library
(dataset, badfiles=None)[source]¶ Prepare the PSF Library for an RDI reduction of a specific dataset by only taking the part of the library we need.
Parameters:  dataset (pyklip.instruments.Instrument.Data) –
 badfiles (np.ndarray) – a list of filenames corresponding to bad files we want to also exclude
Returns:

save_correlation
(filename, overwrite=False, clobber=None, format='fits')[source]¶ Saves self.correlation to a file specified by filename :param filename: filepath to store the correlation matrix :type filename: str :param overwrite: if true overwrite the previous correlation matrix :type overwrite: bool :param clobber: same as overwrite, but deprecated in astropy. :type clobber: bool :param format: type of file to store the correlation matrix as. Supports numpy?/fits?/pickle? (TBD) :type format: str

pyklip.spectra_management module¶

pyklip.spectra_management.
calibrate_star_spectrum
(template_spectrum, template_wvs, filter_name, magnitude, wvs)[source]¶ Scale the Pickles stellar spectrum of a star to the observed apparent magnitude and returns the stellar spectrum in physical units sampled at the specified wavelengths. Currently only supports 2MASS filters and magnitudes. TODO: implement a way to take magnitude error input and propogate the error to the final spectrum
Parameters:  template_spectrum – 1D array, model spectrum of the star with arbitrary units
 template_wvs – 1D array, wavelengths at which the template_spectrum is smapled, in units of microns
 filter_name – string, 2MASS filter, ‘J’, ‘H’, or ‘Ks’
 magnitude – scalar, observed apparent magnitude of the star
 mag_error – scalar or 1D array with 2 elements, error(s) of the magnitude, not yet implemented
 wvs – 1D array, the wvs at which to sample the scaled spectrum, in units of angstroms
Returns: 1D array, scaled stellar spectrum sampled at wvs
Return type: scaled_spectrum

pyklip.spectra_management.
extract_planet_spectrum
(cube_para, position, PSF_cube_para, method=None, filter=None, mute=True)[source]¶

pyklip.spectra_management.
find_lower_nearest
(array, value)[source]¶ Find the lower nearest element to value in array.
Parameters:  array – Array of value
 value – Value for which one wants the lower value.
Returns: (low_value, id) with low_value the closest lower value and id its index.

pyklip.spectra_management.
find_nearest
(array, value)[source]¶ Find the nearest element to value in array.
Parameters:  array – Array of value
 value – Value for which one wants the closest value.
Returns: (closest_value, id) with closest_value the closest lower value and id its index.

pyklip.spectra_management.
find_upper_nearest
(array, value)[source]¶ Find the upper nearest element to value in array.
Parameters:  array – Array of value
 value – Value for which one wants the upper value.
Returns: (up_value, id) with up_value the closest upper value and id its index.

pyklip.spectra_management.
get_planet_spectrum
(spectrum, wavelength, ori_wvs=None)[source]¶ Get the normalized spectrum of a planet for a GPI spectral band or any wavelengths array. Spectra are extraced from .flx files from Mark Marley et al’s models.
Parameters:  spectrum – Path of the .flx file containing the spectrum.
 wavelength – array of wavelenths in microns (or string with GPI band ‘H’, ‘J’, ‘K1’, ‘K2’, ‘Y’). (When using GPI spectral band wavelength samples are linearly spaced between the first and the last wavelength of the band.)
Returns: is the gpi sampling of the considered band in micrometer. spectrum: is the spectrum of the planet for the given band or wavelength array and normalized to unit mean.
Return type: wavelengths

pyklip.spectra_management.
get_specType
(object_name, SpT_file_csv=None)[source]¶ Return the spectral type for a target based on Simbad or on the table in SpT_file
Parameters:  object_name – Name of the target: ie “c_Eri”
 SpT_file – Filename (.csv) of the table containing the target names and their spectral type. Can be generated from quering Simbad. If None (default), the function directly tries to query Simbad.
Returns: Spectral type

pyklip.spectra_management.
get_star_spectrum
(wvs_or_filter_name=None, star_type=None, temperature=None, mute=None)[source]¶ Get the spectrum of a star with given spectral type interpolating the pickles database. The spectrum is normalized to unit mean. It assumes type V star.
 Inputs:
 wvs_or_filter_name: array of wavelenths in microns (or string with GPI band ‘H’, ‘J’, ‘K1’, ‘K2’, ‘Y’).
 (When using GPI spectral band wavelength samples are linearly spaced between the first and the last wavelength of the band.)
 star_type: ‘A5’,’F4’,… Is ignored if temperature is defined.
 If star_type is longer than 2 characters it is truncated.
temperature: temperature of the star. Overwrite star_type if defined.
 Output:
 (wavelengths, spectrum) where
 wavelengths: Sampling in mum. spectrum: is the spectrum of the star for the given band.